Large granular lymphocytic leukaemia (LGL)

A chronic leukaemia of T lymphocytes that is usually linked with a decrease in other white cells and platelets or anaemia. LGL is a rare disease with important clinical differences from Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL).

Leukaemia

From the Greek meaning ‘white blood’. Often referred to as blood cancer. The blood forming system is found in your bone marrow. The bone marrow is the soft inner part of some of your bones. People with leukaemia have large numbers of abnormal blood cells, usually of the white cell lineages, which take over the bone marrow and often spill out into the blood stream. There are many different types of leukaemia and the treatment varies for different types.

There are 2 main types of rapidly developing leukaemia:

Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) and

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

and 3 main types of slow developing leukaemia:

Chronic myeloid leukaemia,

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL),

Hairy cell Leukaemia.

Leukaemogenesis

The development of leukaemia.

Leukapheresis

A way of collecting white blood cells before returning the remainder of the blood to the patient. It is used to reduce the white cell count when chemotherapy has to be avoided, for example during pregnancy.

Leukocytes

Collective term for white blood cells.

Leukopenia

Condition in which the number of white cells in the blood is greatly reduced. Leads to increased risk of infections.

Lymph Glands

see lymph nodes which can be referred to as lymph glands.

Lymph Nodes

A network of small glands throughout the body – particularly in the armpits, neck and groins – which contain both mature and immature lymphocytes.These glands are also called lymph nodes. They drain away waste fluid, waste products and damaged cells, and contain cells that fight infection.

Lymphatic system

This consists of the spleen, lymph nodes and areas of lymphoid tissue such as the tonsils. It plays a major part in the body’s immune response.

Lymphadenopathy

means swelling of the lymph nodes. The most common cause of lymphadenopathy is infection. For example, the lymph nodes in the neck often become swollen when you have a sore throat. Lympadenopathy can also be caused by cancer like CLL making the lymph nodes get bigger.

Lymphocytes

make up a quarter to a third of the white blood cells. There are two types of lymphocytes – B and T cells.The B lymphocytes make antibodies inresponse to disease or any cells the body recognises as foreign or damaged. This is part of the immune response. A cancer of the B lymphocytes is called a B cell lymphoma

Lymphoid

This refers to the lymphatic system including lymphocytes and lymph nodes.

Lymphoma

A cancer which originates in lymphoid tissue, including the lymph glands, liver, spleen, bowel, bone marrow, brain and occasionally other organs. The disease results from the uncontrolled production of lymphocytes. The general term includes over 30 different forms of the disease but there are two main categories: Hodgkin disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Lymphoproliferation

An increase in the production of lymphocytes. This may occur as a normal response to infection.